MAJJHIMA NIKĀYA III 2. 9. Kāyagatāsatisuttaṃ () Mindfulness established in the Body. I heard thus. At one time the Blessed One lived in the monastery. A Study of the Kayagatasati Sutta and Related Texts Concerning Buddhist Meditation Practice By Meas Savoeun (Sumedho) A Thesis Submitted in Partial. A new series on Kayagatasati Sutta during One Day Retreats was started at Nissaranavanaya monastery by Ven. Panadure Chandaratana.
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Meas Savoeun Sumedho Degree: This thesis work has consisted of the following three objectives, namely: The general concepts of kayagatdsati related to other sources as appearing in Buddhist texts, kaysgatasati in the Buddhist canonical texts or in the other Buddhist texts, have been analyzed for a better understanding in the way of systematic and academic writing.
Through studying in detail, this research work has broadly dealt with a large number of Buddhist doctrines and Pali terms, particularly the Pali tenns using in this research work, which are rarely found in the Kayagatdsati Sutta.
Moreover, through carrying on writing the related items, the relevant sources of the certain Buddhist texts, both in the early-canonical texts and the post- canonical literature have been accordingly examined. On the other hand, significant data was found in this present work to give a clear mayagatasati on the applicable aspects based on the discourse and other related texts, particularly in the other two main discourses of the Satipatthdna described in detail including the contemplation of the physical body kdydnupassand used also as a synonymous term with kayagatasati.
In order to make sure that kayaagtasati exploration kaysgatasati research work of the Kayagatasati Sutta is generally relevant to both theoretical aspects and practical techniques of Buddhist meditations: The kayagatasati practice in a correct way may give rise to lots of benefits, that which gained from a suitability of samatha-vipassand development into a daily life of practice.
Thus, with the right understanding of its practical technique, as a good result it will give rise to a supreme fruitfulness and leading to the supreme sense of urgency, to the supreme liberation, to the attainment of insight and vision, and to the real happiness of life here and now.
Therefore, this present thesis in chapter V has drawn some suggestions as well for any additional research, which will be a useful and beneficial for future research work. Firstly, I would like to express my great appreciation to the university for providing me the generous scholarship to cover the tuition fees of suttaa education, to the Most Venerable Professor Dr. I am very grateful and thankful to have got the great opportunity to kaagatasati under the International Programme at MCU.
My deepest gratitude goes to the Chairman of my thesis Supervisory Committee and also my Pali lecturer, Assist. Phra Sutthithammanuwat Phra Ajahn Thiab. I feel very appreciative and grateful for his incredible assistance and kindness over the year during my studies here at MCU, in particular I am really jayagatasati for his kind help me, for his precious comments, main ideas and many suggestions in editing my thesis writing, for his kindness to give various key texts, books, which are useful concerning my research work.
My sincerest gratitude and many thanks go as well to Dr. Phra Srisitthimuni, a member of my Supervisory Committee and also a lecturer of International Programme. Moreover, many thanks for helping me correct very noticeable errors and other key comments on oayagatasati thesis. His assistance and kindness have been very much appreciated indeed. I would like to say many thanks to him for helping me, giving kind advice and other important comments during the writing of my thesis based on the various aspects and dhamma principles in Buddhist Meditation.
All of his teachings on kammatthdna were very helpful in life, and have been very much appreciated. V Furthermore, I would like to say many thanks to Mae Jee Ampai Tansomboon who gives me a useful help and kindness in formatting my thesis as the official framework for my writing, to all the International Programme staff of MCU, to all my dear dhamma teachers and dhamma friends who did encourage and support me to complete my work.
I have really had a great chance to live a good life under his good governance and peaceful instruction. He has great compassion for all novices and monks who live at Wat Nakprok together over the years. Moreover, by the way, I would also like to say very special thanks and to be deeply grateful to my beloved Mom in the Dhamma, Khunyom Wanida Sovannakam for her great support and priceless help to me for the years, passing by to encourage me always to complete this work.
All her goodness and kindness has been everlasting and kept in my mind and is very much appreciated, forever!
Without any kind of help and generous assistance, this research work would not be a final success. Many thanks, and with gratefulness to all. Conclusion and Suggestion 5. English Translation of the Kayagatasati Sutta B. Biography of Researcher 1 Chapter I Introduction 1. Every discourse was basically tailored by the Buddha to its specific audience, to be useful for their kayagatasayi and to the level of their capacity kayagataeati understanding the truths.
Kayagatasati is one of the branches of mind training dealing fundamentally with the technique of meditation development, i. BPS,pp.
BPS,p. The ten recollections are as follows: That is the reason why it should be studied thoroughly and in detail sufta find out the correct way to deal with it in order to get a better understanding in appropriate kayagwtasati based on the kdyagatdsati practice. On the other hand, the main purpose is to study the discourse of kdyagatdsati to do further research to explore the outlines of Kdyagatdsati Sutta regarding the various aspects of meditation practices.
The main sections as showed separately in the discourse with regard to the mindfulness of the body are presented, i. The considerable importance kayagataasati kdyagatdsati practice may be seen that one has devoted himself to develop and repeatedly practice it; he will surely be liberated from suffering.
One who practices the kdyagatdsati the mindfulness as regards the physical body develops asubha-sanna the notion of loathsomeness of the body. This is the main problem causing them to be reborn again and again for a long samsdra, the round of countless rebirths and deaths, nothing happy and pleasurable but just suffering. Therefore, the best way to suppress that raga and the best remedy to cure the raga- diseases is the asubha-kammatthdna, and it was made a standard or compulsory kammatthana during the time of the Buddha, especially for young monks.
Monks, one thing, if practiced and made much of, conduces to great thrill, great profit, great security, after the toil, to mindfulness and self-possession, to the winning of knowledge and insight, to pleasant living in this very life, to the realization of the fruit of o release by knowledge.
It is of course to understand more deeply the theoretical level of meditation technique as a main support to or as playing a crucial role in the Buddhist practices; on the other hand: However we are required to keep abreast of both the theory and practice so that we will be able to practice effectively and succeed in our aspiration, gained from the correct understanding and proper practice.
Therefore, the discourse on kayagatasati will be studied in detail as one part of the understandings, and to investigate the relevance of this 6 Mehm Tin Mon, The Essence of Buddha Abhidhamma, Yangon: Mya Mon Yadanar Publication,p. PTS,p. There are four following aspects of the satipatthdna, namely: In the case it is either a collective name for the four mental groups feeling, perception, mental fonnations, and consciousness or merely feeling, perception and a few of the mental formations.
Kaya is also the fifth sense-organ, the body-organ. It is synonymous with kaydnupassand which means the contemplation or observation of the body. The Direct Path to Realization, Kandy: This book of the academic research work is based on exploration of the Satipatthdna Sutta and its relevant discourses found in the Pali Canonical Texts together with actual practices.
Research at the University of Peradeniya in Sri Lanka and his personal practical experience as a meditating monk. It attempts to explain in detail the significance and the practice according to the exposition in the Satipatthdna Sutta. Bhikkhu Analayo also gives a practice-related 7 perspective on the more scholarly expositions, and provides the relevant background information from the original sources.
In addition to these, he has also consulted the selected modem meditation manuals and recent publications. Therefore, his sources are annuals and recent publications, and it is an excellent key secondary source for this present research.
The Anattalakkhana Sutta describes itself the nature and characteristics of not-self, which is the second discourse given by the Buddha to the five ascetics. But it does not describe clearly the way how to practice at the present time in terms of specific meditation methods or techniques for us to easily contemplate and note according to meditation practice, in particular the insight meditation, therefore in this book the Most Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw gives a full exposition of the methods of contemplation based on his personal experiences and knowledge in meditation practice under the methodical instructions of a qualified teachers as well as with the relevant Pali Canonical Texts and commentaries.
With respect to his modern technique of meditation practice generally accepted by many Buddhist scholars, the Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw explains in detail and describes the way how to reflect and contemplate on not-self or no soul, leading to the final goal of Buddhism that is the end of all kinds of sufferings, the Nibbana.
Sublime Life Mission, This handbook for a perfect form of anapanasati-bhavana delivered by the Most Venerable Buddhadasa Bhikkhu has been condensed into the customary style of Chien Nurn Eng, which aimed at providing a guidance of the path leading to the proper practice of all the sixteen steps as presented in its discourse, and particularly it also based on the four foundations of satipatthana.
It is possible for everyone to use it as a handbook for doing oneself-meditation practice, and for those who are interested in practicing Buddhist meditation as well. In addition, this book also collected the form of meditation instruction with clear description of meditation practice in tenns of the understanding of how to 8 practice all the sixteen steps of anapanasati meditation which provides broadly the solution of a system of short-cut meditation practice.
In this book, the excellent source on the actual practice as regards satipatthana is basically given an initial guidance to the understanding of theoretical principles and its practical application. In accordance with the traditional technique as taught by the Venerable MahasI Sayadaw, the great meditation master from Bunna, Venerable Nyanaponika has quoted the main aspects of its principle together with his own understanding and direct experiences.
This work is combined with academic rigor and personal experience based on the particular importance for this research when examining the major current meditation traditions of satipatthana practice. Phramaha Singhathon Narasabho, Meditation: A Guide to a Happy Life, Bangkok: This book attempts to interpret and re-examine the theories and the practices, the advantages as well as the levels of attainment regarding the Buddhist meditation.
It can also be regarded as a comprehensive and authoritative work on the Buddhist ways of practice following in all aspects by means of both samatha-bhavana tranquility meditation and vipassana-bhavana insight meditationwhich are known as the fundamental principles and teachings of the Lord Buddha, as found in the Pali Canon. It seems in the more academic research presented by Singhathon Narasabho on the Buddhist meditation that he has adopted a critical and comparative method to illustrate the fundamental principles and the benefits in the practice of Buddhist meditation.
Through the Buddhist practices, he greatly expects from his book, which would be the best guide to all practitioners to follow it in the hope of success in practice leading to the final goal of Buddhism: This research methodology will be divided into four stages as follows: Collecting data relating to the tenn kayagatdsati from the four main Nikayas of Suttanta Pitaka, namely: Furthennore, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Commentaries, and Sub-commentaries will be more examined as well.
The selected material sources of English translations will be used, namely: In this chapter, I will pick out the related findings of this research in relation to the term kayagatasati.
Firstly, I will present a general definition of the term kayagatasati.
kayagatasatk Secondly, I will discuss the different kinds of kayagatasati which given in the Suttanta Pitaka. Moreover, each of the three kinds of kayagatasati may kkayagatasati further subdivided in classification as discussed in the following discussion according to the Abhidhamma explanation of kayagatasati.
Before embarking on a description and evaluation of the structure and contents of the Kayagatasati Sutta, in the present Chapter II will at first turn to the exact meaning on the term of kayagatasati.
MN Mindfulness of the Body—Bhikkhu Sujato
A collection of shorter expositions can be found in the Samyutta Nikaya and the Ahguttara Nikaya. The difference between the two main versions, one of them being considerably longer, is the extent to which it deals with the contemplation of the four noble truths. Kayagatasati Sutta elaborates these four noble truths in detail, parts of which are, however, of relatively less relevance to a meditative context. Therefore, the present investigation will be explored and based upon the Kayagatasati Sutta.
This is followed by a short definition of what this path consists of this part of the discourse will hereafter be referred to as definition ; this definition occurs in several other discourses as the definition of samma-sati right mindfulness.
In the definition of the body kayathe feelings vedanasthe mental states. As regards these four areas, the definition also mentions several mental qualities which form key aspects of kayagatasati contemplation.
These are, with respect to sati itself, about diligence, clear comprehension, and the removal of covetousness and dejection. On the other hand, according to the Kayagatasati Sutta and its commentary, the contemplation in terms of practice refers frequently to all those concentration exercises, mentioned as the kaydnupassand, or in the first satipatthana, some of which are also, at the same time, used as the insight exercises; and furtherforme, it refers only to one of these contemplations that on the thirty-two parts of the body, ft is well known and frequently practiced in all the Buddhist countries of Southern Asia.
This refrain returns attention from the particularities of the instructions to the general thrust of the discourse, restating and re-emphasizing the key issues that are of importance for the practice, these key issues stipulate that contemplation should be carried out internally and externally, that the nurture of arising and passing away should be observed, that the mindfulness should be established merely for the sake of increasing mindfulness and gaining knowledge, and finally that the practitioner should avoid any clinging or dependency.
The fact that this refrain is an indispensable part of each single meditation is brought to light in the discourse with the remark: This remark concludes each refrain and is related to the question asked before introducing any single mediation: These features of the Kdyagatdsati Sutta will, therefore, be of a particular interest to my exploration.